Technology FAQ

Commonly Used Terms and Questions

Asynchronous replication is a store and forward approach to data backup or data protection. Asynchronous replication writes data to the primary storage array first and then, depending on the implementation approach, commits data to be replicated to memory or a disk-based journal.

Buffer is a packet buffer internal to Bay’s IBEx/FX solutions to provide traffic shaping function. Traffic shaping (also known as packet shaping) is a computer network traffic management technique which delays some or all datagrams to bring them into compliance with a desired traffic profile. Traffic shaping is used to optimize or guarantee performance, improve latency, and/or increase usable bandwidth for some kinds of packets by delaying other kinds. Bay’s IBEx/FX series of products support such traffic shaping and hence the necessary packet buffering.

Data at rest in information technology means inactive data that is stored physically in any digital form (e.g. databases, data warehouses, spreadsheets, archives, tapes, off-site backups, mobile devices etc.).Data at rest is used as a complement to the terms data in use and data in flight/transit which together define the three states of digital data.

Data in flight/transit or data in motion is defined into two categories, data that flows over the public or untrusted network such as the internet and data which flows in the confines of a private network such as a corporate or enterprise Local Area Network (LAN).

In data transportation/exchange, Determinism is defined as “the ability to send a piece of information to a destination and receive a response in a repeatable time frame”.

Routers forward L3 IP packets by making decisions on a per-hop basis resulting in non-determinstic, lossy behavior. Probabilistic, hierarchical IP routed networks are better suited for non-critical bulk applications but not for time-critical ones. Routers support today’s TCP/IP networks and their performance degrades severely over long distances partly due to the non-deterministic and lossy network layer. Bay’s solutions provide deterministic, lossless, native L2 extension globally to support time-critical applications including but not limited to media production, financial trading, business continuity etc.

Carrier Ethernet is a marketing term for extensions to Ethernet to enable telecommunications network providers to provide Ethernet services to customers and to utilize Ethernet technology in their networks. E-Line is a service connecting two customer Ethernet ports over a WAN. E-LAN is a multipoint service connecting a set of customer endpoints, giving the appearance to the customer of a bridged Ethernet network connecting the sites.

Data center fabrics consist of interconnected nodes that look like a “weave” or a “fabric” when viewed collectively from a distance and it exists within the four walls of the data center. Bay’s Global Fabric Extension technology extends this local fabric/infrastructure, services and applications across MAN/WAN. Bay supports concurrent fabric types and is compatible with any and all WAN services providing ultra-high network utilization and ultra-low latency and jitter.

High Performance Computing(HPC) is the term often used for large-scale computers and the simulations and models which run on them. Bay uses and abstracts the following HPC technologies to achieve a lossless fabric with deterministic performance:

  • Parallel File Systems Distributed file systems, which also are parallel and fault tolerant, stripe and replicate data over multiple servers for high performance and to maintain data integrity. Even if a server fails no data is lost. The file systems are used in both high-performance computing (HPC) and high-availability clusters.
  • RDMA Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a communications technique that allows data to be transmitted from the memory of one computer to the memory of another computer without passing through either devices CPU, without needing extensive buffering, and without calling to an operating system kernel. RDMA has been deployed in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications since early 2000. Today RDMA is being adopted into commercial applications.

High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is software that manages petabytes of data on disk and robotic tape libraries. HPSS provides highly flexible and scalable hierarchical storage management that keeps recently used data on fast storage devices and less recently used data on slower devices. HPSS uses cluster, LAN and/or SAN technology to aggregate the capacity and performance of many computers, nonvolatile memories, disks, and tape drives into a single virtual file system of exceptional size and versatility. This approach enables HPSS to easily meet otherwise unachievable demands of total storage capacity, file sizes, data rates, and number of objects stored.

Layer 2 connection uses L2 addressing (MAC SA/DA, VLAN ID etc.) to deliver packets to the destination address unlike L3 connection which uses L3 (e.g. IP) addressing. Bay’s products operate over any layer 1 and layer 2 guaranteed bandwidth connections.

Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a type of data-carrying technique for high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table.

Bay’s products and solutions do not compete with MPLS solutions but work with MPLS using PWE-3 and achieving the same level of performance enhancement compared to standard TCP/IP. TCP/IP uses MPLS as a server layer instead of IP routing so Bay solutions still address the TCP/IP performance issues.

Entire MaxDX, whether it has one or more compute engines, is referred to as a single MaxDX node. All the MaxDX components installed at one site are typically considered part of a single node.

Bay does not compete with Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplxer (ROADM) or Packet Optical Transport System (POTS) platforms but works with them. Optical transport solutions provide the physical reach (typically much greater than that provided by Bay’s dark fiber solution) to truly showcase Bay’s “global” fabric reach.

RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) is a network protocol that allows remote direct memory access (RDMA) over an Ethernet network. There are two RoCE versions, RoCE v1 and RoCE v2. RoCE v1 is an Ethernet link layer protocol and hence allows communication between any two hosts in the same Ethernet broadcast domain. RoCE v2 is an internet layer protocol which means that RoCE v2 packets can be routed. Although the RoCE protocol benefits from the characteristics of a converged Ethernet network, the protocol can also be used on a traditional or non-converged Ethernet network.

Site is the entire physical location at which MaxDX or other Bay solutions are installed.

Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network (SAN), local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) so there are multiple up-to-date copies of the data.

Tiered storage is the assignment of different categories of data to various types of storage media to reduce total storage cost. Tiers are determined by performance and cost of the media, and data is ranked by how often it is accessed. Tiered storage policies place the most frequently accessed data on the highest performing storage. Rarely accessed data goes on low-performance, cheaper storage. In the context of MaxDX, the embedded drives on the MaxDX act as a faster tier or cache before the data is moved or made accessible across MaxDX nodes at different locations.